The historical use of shepherd dogs across Eurasia has been effective against wolf predation, especially when confining sheep in the presence of several livestock guardian dogs. , In Europe, wolves eat apples, pears, figs, melons, berries and cherries.  In wolves, the incubation period is eight to 21 days, and results in the host becoming agitated, deserting its pack, and travelling up to 80 km (50 mi) a day, thus increasing the risk of infecting other wolves. The Sea Wolf is a 1941 American adventure drama film adaptation of Jack London's 1904 novel The Sea Wolf with Edward G. Robinson, Ida Lupino, John Garfield, and Alexander Knox.The film was written by Robert Rossen and directed by Michael Curtiz..  The diet of coastal wolves in Alaska includes 20% salmon, while those of coastal wolves in British Columbia includes 25% marine sources, and those on the nearby islands 75%. The warmth of the foot pads is regulated independently from the rest of the body and is maintained at just above tissue-freezing point where the pads come in contact with ice and snow. Animal InfoBooks Animal InfoBooks.  Its molars have a flat chewing surface, but not to the same extent as the coyote, whose diet contains more vegetable matter.  Wolves encounter cougars along portions of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent mountain ranges. that encourage wolves to spend time near people". Nevertheless, they tend to fear and avoid human beings, especially in North America. The wolf has a running gait of 55–70 km/h (34–43 mph), can leap 5 m (16 ft) horizontally in a single bound, and can maintain rapid pursuit for at least 20 minutes.  In warm climates, the fur is coarser and scarcer than in northern wolves. D. renale causes the complete destruction of the kidney's functional tissue and can be fatal if both kidneys are infected. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Fairbanks, Alaska. Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June–August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas (for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking) increase.  Wolves in northern Minnesota prey on northern pike in freshwater streams. WATCH: Photographing the Wild Wolves of Yellowstone , Predatory attacks can occur at any time of the year, with a peak in the June–August period, when the chances of people entering forested areas (for livestock grazing or berry and mushroom picking) increase, though cases of non-rabid wolf attacks in winter have been recorded in Belarus, the Kirovsk and Irkutsk districts, in Karelia, and in Ukraine. Scent marking involves urine, feces, and anal gland scents. The divergence time for wolves in Europe, the Middle East, and Asia is estimated to be fairly recent at around 1,600 years ago. They usually work the hardest at killing prey, and may rest after a long hunt and allow the rest of the family to eat undisturbed.  As of 2018, there were 230 Mexican wolves living in Mexico, 64 in Arizona, 67 in New Mexico, and 240 in captive breeding programs in both countries. Wolves and cougars typically avoid encountering each other by hunting at different elevations for different prey (niche partitioning). This was apparent in cases involving habituated North American wolves in Algonquin Provincial Park, Vargas Island Provincial Park and Ice Bay, as well as 19th-century cases involving escaped captive wolves in Sweden and Estonia. The milk canines erupt after one month. Although Aesop used wolves to warn, criticize and moralize about human behaviour, his portrayals added to the wolf's image as a deceitful and dangerous animal. With perhaps only four proven records of tigers killing wolves, these cases are rare; attacks appear to be competitive rather than predatory in nature.  There are few historical records or modern cases of wolf attacks in North America. In some areas of the Rocky Mountains of Alberta and British Columbia, the coat colour is predominantly black, some being blue-gray and some with silver and black. Butler, L., B. Dale, K. Beckmen, and S. Farley. While such attacks may still be dangerous, they tend to be limited to quick bites and not pressed.  Prey in North America continue to occupy suitable habitats with low human density, the wolves eating livestock and garbage only in dire circumstances. Older wolves generally have more white hairs on the tip of the tail, along the nose, and on the forehead. , Cases of rabid wolves are low when compared to other species since wolves do not serve as primary reservoirs of the disease, but can be infected with rabies from other animals such as dogs, golden jackals and foxes. 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